Mar 15 2023 Posted: 09:00 GMT

CÚRAM researchers at Dublin City University, the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, and the University of Galway have recently published a collaborative review of two-photon polymerization (TPP) systems which have emerged to enable rapid prototyping of micro- and nano-featured polymeric materials.


TPPs which provide significant opportunities exist for expanding modification strategies of polymeric materials with extensive possibilities to produce devices with chemical functionality through facile conjugation reactions and click chemistry.

TPP has become widely adopted in cell biology, optical engineering, and medical device development. It boasts an unparalleled ability to produce micro- and nanostructures with resolutions and arbitrary geometry beyond the capabilities of other subtractive and additive manufacturing approaches.

Extensive work has been undertaken using commercially available photoresists, using rigid materials such as acrylates, epoxides, and OIHs to produce optically smooth microstructures for applications in micro-optics and biocompatible materials for the production of next-generation medical devices.

Lead author Dr Andrew Kellett, Professor of Inorganic and Medicinal Chemistry in DCU School of Chemical Sciences, Principal Investigator of Biodesign Europe, and Funded Investigator of the SSPC and CÚRAM SFI Research Centres, said: “There is now extensive scope to produce custom formulated resins using systematic and multistep approaches for the creation of next-generation multifunctional microscale polymeric devices.”


Polymerization techniques are a staple of modern chemical production and they are applied extensively within industry generating the items of everyday life. While there are numerous polymerization methods—ranging from classical processes to more complex solid-phase methods—this review focuses on photochemical radical and cationic polymerization.

The review paper was published by Advanced Materials and can be read in full here -



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